traceroute

traceroute

六月 19, 2018

traceroute 是用来检测发出数据包的主机到目标主机之间所经过的网关数量的工具。traceroute 的原理是试图以最小的TTL发出探测包来跟踪数据包到达目标主机所经过的网关,然后监听一个来自网关ICMP的应答。发送数据包的大小默认为 38个字节。

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tracert [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-j computer-list] [-w timeout] target_name

SYNOPSIS

traceroute [-46dFITUnreAV] [-f first_ttl] [-g gate,...]

[-i device] [-m max_ttl] [-p port] [-s src_addr]

[-q nqueries] [-N squeries] [-t tos]

[-l flow_label] [-w waittime] [-z sendwait]

[-UL] [-P proto] [--sport=port] [-M method] [-O mod_options]

[--mtu] [--back]

host [packet_len]

traceroute [参数选项] hostname,域名或 IP地址

-i 指定网络接口,对于多个网络接口有用。比如 -i eth1-i ppp1等;

-m 把在外发探测试包中所用的最大生存期设置为max-ttl次转发,默认值为30次;

-n 显示IP地址,不查主机名。当DNS不起作用时常用到这个参数;

-p port 探测包使用的基本UDP端口设置为port ,默认值是33434

-q n 在每次设置生存期时,把探测包的个数设置为值n,默认时为3;

-r 绕过正常的路由表,直接发送到网络相连的主机;

-w n 把对外发探测包的等待响应时间设置为n秒,默认值为3秒;

用法实例:

traceroute www.baidu.com

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pc:~$ traceroute www.baidu.com

traceroute: Warning:www.baidu.comhas multiple addresses; using 220.181.111.188

traceroute towww.a.shifen.com(220.181.111.188), 64 hops max, 52 byte packets

1 bogon (10.x.x.x) 0.968 ms 0.711 ms 0.710 ms

2 bogon (172.x.x.x) 0.571 ms 0.545 ms 0.429 ms

3129.x.x.x.broad.bj.bj.dynamic.163data.com.cn (219.x.x.x) 4.131 ms 3.252 ms 2.789 ms

425.x.x.x.static.bjtelecom.net(106.x.x.x) 2.565 ms 2.067 ms 2.133 ms

5 * * *

6 36.x.x.x (36.x.x.x) 3.360 ms

219.x.x.x (219.x.x.x) 3.425 ms

36.x.x.x (36.x.x.x) 3.304 ms

7 * * *

8 220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 2.803 ms 4.935 ms

220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 3.736 ms

9 * * *

traceroute -m 10 www.baidu.com 设置跳数为10

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pc:~ $ traceroute -m 10 www.baidu.com

traceroute: Warning:www.baidu.comhas multiple addresses; using 220.181.111.188

traceroute to www.a.shifen.com(220.181.111.188), 10 hops max, 52 byte packets

1 bogon (10.x.x.x) 1.067 ms 4.024 ms 0.712 ms

2 bogon (172.x.x.x) 0.309 ms 0.337 ms 0.607 ms

3 129.x.x.x.broad.bj.bj.dynamic.163data.com.cn (219.x.x.x) 2.683 ms 3.353 ms 2.947 ms

4 25.x.x.x.static.bjtelecom.net(x.x.x.25) 2.179 ms 2.325 ms 2.043 ms

5 * * *

6 36.x.x.x (36.x.x.x) 3.590 ms 7.793 ms 6.461 ms

7 * * *

8 220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 3.175 ms 2.893 ms

220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 5.538 ms

9 * * *

10 * * *

traceroute -n www.baidu.com 只显示ip

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pc:~ $ traceroute -n www.baidu.com

traceroute: Warning:www.baidu.comhas multiple addresses; using 220.181.111.188

traceroute to www.a.shifen.com(220.181.111.188), 64 hops max, 52 byte packets

1 10.x.x.x 0.946 ms 0.761 ms 0.718 ms

2 172.x.x.x 0.452 ms 0.338 ms 0.389 ms

3 219.x.x.x 3.174 ms 4.038 ms 2.379 ms

4 106.x.x.x 2.910 ms 1.960 ms 1.654 ms

5 * * *

6 36.x.x.x 3.321 ms 4.275 ms 3.637 ms

traceroute -p 6888 www.baidu.com 设置探测包使用的基本UDP端口

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pc:~ $ traceroute -p 6888 www.baidu.com

traceroute: Warning:www.baidu.comhas multiple addresses; using 220.181.111.188

traceroute to www.a.shifen.com(220.181.111.188), 64 hops max, 52 byte packets

1 bogon (10.x.x.x) 0.989 ms 0.752 ms 0.722 ms

2 bogon (172.x.x.x) 0.489 ms 0.399 ms 0.327 ms

3 129.x.x.x.broad.bj.bj.dynamic.163data.com.cn (219.x.x.x) 3.094 ms 3.442 ms 3.529 ms

4 25.x.x.x.static.bjtelecom.net(106.x.x.x) 1.837 ms 2.488 ms 2.516 ms

5 * * *

6 * 36.x.x.x (36.x.x.x) 4.876 ms

traceroute -q 4 www.baidu.com 设置探测包的个数

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pc:~$ traceroute -q 4 www.baidu.com

traceroute: Warning:www.baidu.comhas multiple addresses; using 220.181.111.188

traceroute to www.a.shifen.com(220.181.111.188), 64 hops max, 52 byte packets

1 bogon (10.x.x.x) 0.970 ms 0.721 ms 4.360 ms 0.667 ms

2 bogon (172.x.x.x) 0.534 ms 0.640 ms 0.363 ms 0.449 ms

3 129.x.x.x.broad.bj.bj.dynamic.163data.com.cn (x.x.x.129) 2.831 ms 3.221 ms 2.878 ms 2.814 ms

4 25.x.x.x.static.bjtelecom.net(x.x.x.25) 1.921 ms 2.564 ms 2.472 ms 3.979 ms

5 177.x.x.x.static.bjtelecom.net(x.x.x.177) 2.465 ms * * *

6 219.x.x.x (219.x.x.x) 4.245 ms

36.x.x.x (36.x.x.x) 3.681 ms 3.053 ms

220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 3.444 ms

traceroute -r www.baidu.com 绕过正常的路由表直接发送到网络相连的主机

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pc:~ $ traceroute -r www.baidu.com

traceroute: Warning:www.baidu.comhas multiple addresses; using 220.181.111.188

traceroute to www.a.shifen.com(220.181.111.188), 64 hops max, 52 byte packets

traceroute: sendto: Network is unreachable

1 traceroute: wrotewww.a.shifen.com52 chars, ret=-1

*traceroute: sendto: Network is unreachable

traceroute: wrotewww.a.shifen.com52 chars, ret=-1

*traceroute: sendto: Network is unreachable

traceroute: wrotewww.a.shifen.com52 chars, ret=-1

*

traceroute: sendto: Network is unreachable

2 traceroute: wrotewww.a.shifen.com52 chars, ret=-1

traceroute -w 3 www.baidu.com 把对外发探测包的等待响应时间设置为n秒,默认值为3秒

pc:~ $ traceroute -w 3www.baidu.com

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traceroute: Warning:www.baidu.comhas multiple addresses; using 220.181.111.188

traceroute to www.a.shifen.com(220.181.111.188), 64 hops max, 52 byte packets

1 bogon (10.x.x.x) 0.957 ms 0.710 ms 0.713 ms

2 bogon (172.x.x.x) 0.603 ms 0.616 ms 0.321 ms

3 129.x.x.x.broad.bj.bj.dynamic.163data.com.cn (x.x.x.129) 3.744 ms 2.371 ms 2.625 ms

4 25.x.x.x.static.bjtelecom.net(x.x.x.25) 2.022 ms * 3.474 ms

5 * * *

6 36.x.x.x (36.x.x.x) 4.408 ms 5.760 ms 3.091 ms

7 * * *

8 220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 3.482 ms

220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 3.024 ms

220.x.x.x (220.x.x.x) 3.377 ms

9 * *

traceroute -i eth0 -4 www.baidu.com 使用eth0网口以及IPV4协议

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[root@ip-ops]# traceroute -i eth0 -4 www.baidu.com

traceroute towww.baidu.com(220.181.112.244), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets

1 compute.amazonaws.com.cn (54.x.x.x) 15.993 ms compute.amazonaws.com.cn (54.x.x.x) 11.778 ms.compute.amazonaws.com.cn (54.x.x.x) 12.896 ms

2 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 21.890 ms 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 21.880 ms 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 21.630 ms

3 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 12.609 ms 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 22.017 ms 100.x.x.x(100.x.x.x) 14.010 ms

4 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 0.256 ms 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 0.261 ms 100.x.x.x (100.x.x.x) 0.209 ms

5 54.x.x.x (54.x.x.x) 1.071 ms 54.x.x.x (54.x.x.x) 1.536 ms 1.639 ms